CRUSUS An Educational, Research and Business Consulting Network oriented to Sustainability BIOFUEL AND BIOMASS PRODUCTION Come Back Climate Change Risk assessment for sustainable project Biofuel and Biomass production Sustainable financial Sustainability management and reports Biomass for Power Generation and Combined Heat & Power (CHP) - The State of the Art (a tutorial paper) This paper is focused the use of biomass for  producing heat and electricity in industrial and power  plants solely or in combined heat & power schemes.  Biomass is becoming a typical agribusiness in the last  decades stimulated by the search for new sources of  energy (heat and electricity) and fuels. A wide an  complex framework for biomass can be found today  involving different raw materials, processes and  byproducts delivered to market. The figure which  follows illustrates that. However evidence is clear for  the concentration of investments in energy and  biofuels.  Special concerns are made to woody and bagasse biomass which can be converted into  useful forms of energy (solid, liquid, or gaseous fuels) as well as useful products  (polymers, bio-plastics, char, pellets, and acids) at a biorefinery. A biorefinery is a facility  that uses biomass conversion technologies to convert biomass into fuels, power, and  more recently to value-added chemicals. Each biorefinery process yields different  amounts and types of co-products and by-products. Co-products describe the useful and  marketable by-products, other than energy, that are produced simultaneously during  biomass conversion. Many of today’s co-products may have traditionally been defined as  waste or by-products. Biorefinery process technologies include thermochemical  (gasification, pyrolysis), biochemical (fermentation), or chemical (chemical synthesis)  pathways.  Sugar cane bagasse which goes straight to combustion to produce bioelectricity and  bioheating, is recently investigated for further processing to obtain cellulosic ethanol. That  may change trends of steam power generation with bagasse as it may come raw material  for additional biofuel as ethanol.  An overview of the state of art in biomass for heat and power is presented with the main  attitudes in EU and US. It also includes a summary for biomass applications as well as a  description of the main woody and bagasse biomasses defining peculiar schemes for  plants.  Also the emerging concept of biorefineries is presented consisting on the co-production of  a spectrum of bio-based products (food, feed, materials, chemicals) and energy (fuels,  power, heat) from biomass.  A biorefinery is a facility that integrates biomass conversion processes and equipment to  produce fuels, power, and value-added chemicals from biomass. The biorefinery concept  is analogous to today’s petroleum refinery, which produces multiple fuels and products  from petroleum.    Download the full report here.